By Robert R. September I have heard every argument. I have read every justification. Some simply appeal to arguments of tradition and familiarity with the system. Because when all else fails, one can always deny the facts and use different labels i. For one, it perpetuates the stereotype that Christians are arrogant tyrants who insist on couching all of human history including Jewish, Islamic, Indian, Chinese, etc. Rather than living the lives of humble servants that their Bible calls them to do, many Christians maintain that all history should be subject to their own religious claims. Even the period of history that took place before Jesus supposedly came to earth is relegated to mere anticipatory events prior to the birth of Jesus.
Site dating from about 2,600 BCE – Pingliangtai Ancient City
Anno Domini was the first of these to appear. This was supposedly in part a response to advice Diocletian received at the oracle of Apollo at Didyma. Previous to this, he had purportedly only advocated banning Christians from such things as the military and ruling body in hopes that would appease the gods. Afterward, he switched to an escalating policy of persecution to try to get Christians to worship the Roman gods. When this sort of thing was ineffective, they progressed to arresting and torturing Christians, starting with the leaders.
This method of convincing people to worship the Roman gods ended up being an amazing failure and the persecution appears to have only continued after AD in the Eastern half of the empire under Galerius and Maximinus.
What do BC, AD, CE, and BCE stand for? Answer. B.C. is generally thought to mean “before Christ,” and has been used to date events before the birth of Jesus.
This is an embryonic tourist attraction and I was told that planes are in place for a future interpretation centre which will be of a real benefit to the site. Currently the non-Chinese speaking visitor will have difficulty in assessing the site as there are simply some holes in the ground and a room with a very basic display of pottery fragments. I was fortunate in having two academics and the site is being excavated by Peking University. Contrary to my initial impression I became quite interested and realised the impirtance of the site to the Chinese as it is tangible evidence for the claim that it has a civilisation of 5, years.
Pipework is visible when drawn to one’s attention that show the use of water distribution to the houses. The ‘cityy’ wall is 13 metres across – but just looks like a grassy mound to the uninformed. It is thought that perhaps a 1, people residend in the area and it survived as a settlement for perhaps a 1, years, but no-one knows why it went into decline. I suspect other, more powerful dynasties emerged and wished to build their own bigger cities.
My star rating was based on being privy to a guide, but I rather guess most people would not have that privilege and the site is still being excavated and as a place to visit rather rudimentary. But it is still worth marvelling at the pottery found and to admise the quality of things so old. Log in to get trip updates and message other travelers. Pingliangtai Ancient City. Ancient Ruins.
Year Dating Conventions
Overview of Dating. When paleoanthropologists refer to time in the past, it is done with either relative or chronometric dates. Relative dates give the time of an event with reference to another event that is not worldwide in scale.
History of the Debate: The use of BC and AD only dates back to the 16th century, when Pope Gregory XIII decided to begin to date the years.
With some rather heated debate, authors, pundits, scholars, and literary style masters took one side over the other. Decades later, they remain split, but the consensus seems to be that the decision to use one or the other is a personal or organizational preference. The same applies to the use of periods: use or don’t use them, based on personal or organizational preference.
Both take as their starting point the year when 4th-century Christian scholars believed Jesus Christ was born, designated as AD 1 or 1 CE. The designation of a particular year in either set has identical values. In other words, today Jesus is believed to have been born somewhere between 4 and 7 BCE, which is equivalent to 4 and 7 BC. Berkowitz, who, in her application to practice before the Supreme Court was asked if she preferred “in the year of Our Lord” on the certificate’s date, chose to omit it.
By nearly 2 to 1, other scholars and some members of the clergy who responded to Safire agreed with Bloom and Berkowitz. As to everyday citizens, opinions were sharply divided. Muslims have a lunar calendar reckoned from A. The Jewish calendar is also a lunar one and is the official calendar of the State of Israel The Christian or Gregorian calendar has become the second calendar in most non-Christian countries, and as this is the Christian calendar, I cannot see why ‘before Christ’ and ‘in the year of Our Lord’ would be objectionable.
To BCE Or Not to BCE: That Is a Very Common Question
The proposal caused consternation among Christian traditionalists and some of the corporation’s most famous names, who promised to ignore the idea. If you saw a date reference followed by the letters BC , you’d be likely to know that whatever was being described happened a jolly long time ago. But if you saw one preceded or followed by the letters CE , would you be clear about its position in the sequence of time?
For the uninitiated, CE is an abbreviation of the expression Common Era , and in , it’s proving rather controversial. CE and BCE … were conceived as … expressions that are not specifically anchored in Christianity and are therefore sensitive to all and any of the world’s religions and belief systems. Common Era is basically an alternative way of expressing the concept denoted by the phrase Anno Domini , commonly AD for short.
Pingliangtai Ancient City: Site dating from about BCE – See traveler reviews, candid photos, and great deals for Huaiyang County, China, at Tripadvisor.
Alternatively, the Islamic or Hijri calendar commemorates the movement of Muhammed from Mecca to Medina. Moreover, Romans dated years according to the founding date of the city ab urbe condita in BCE. As Christians, Muslims, early Romans, and many other civilizations indicate: time or at least the organization of it is a construct. Style books are similarly torn. Feel free to share with attribution on digital devices, print onto small business cards for use at conferences, disseminate at Thanksgiving, or ignore as you see fit.
The choice is yours, and, well, that is really the whole point of this post. Just be consistent! I am interested in Roman, late antique, and early medieval history, archaeology, topography and GIS, Digital Humanities, and the role of Classics in pop culture. My book, Trade and Taboo: Disreputable Professionals in the Roman Mediterranean, is out now from University of Michigan Press Fall, and looks at the lives of marginalized tradesmen like gravediggers and tanners.
View all posts by sarahemilybond.
What do bp, bc, bce, ad, ce, and cal mean?
In almost all archaeology books and articles the authors use dates. This is the Christian era in the Gregorian calendar, starting from 1 AD as the year in which Christ was believed to have been born. The date was calculated about years after the event, so was a broad estimate.
birth date of Jesus) and B.C. stands for “before Christ.” Israel and some other nations substitute B.C.E. (before the Common Era) and C.E. (the Common Era).
Common Era CE is one of the notation systems for the world’s most widely used calendar era. The year-numbering system used by the Gregorian calendar is used throughout the world today, and is an international standard for civil calendars. The expression has been traced back to , when it first appeared in a book by Johannes Kepler as the Latin annus aerae nostrae vulgaris ,   and to in English as ” Vulgar [b] Era”.
The term “Common Era” can be found in English as early as ,  and became more widely used in the midth century by Jewish religious scholars. In the later 20th century, the use of CE and BCE was popularized in academic and scientific publications as a culturally neutral term. It is also used by some authors and publishers who wish to emphasize sensitivity to non-Christians by not explicitly referencing Jesus as ” Christ ” and Dominus “Lord” through use of the abbreviation [c] “AD”.
The year numbering system used with Common Era notation was devised by the Christian monk Dionysius Exiguus in the year to replace the Era of Martyrs system, because he did not wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians. This way of numbering years became more widespread in Europe with its use by Bede in England in Bede also introduced the practice of dating years before what he supposed was the year of birth of Jesus,  and the practice of not using a year zero.
The term “Common Era” is traced back in English to its appearance as ” Vulgar Era” to distinguish dates on the Ecclesiastic calendar in popular use from dates of the regnal year , the year of reign of a sovereign, typically used in national law. The word ‘vulgar’ originally meant ‘of the ordinary people’, with no derogatory associations. The first use of the Latin term anno aerae nostrae vulgaris [e] discovered so far was in a book by Johannes Kepler.
The first known use of “Christian Era” is as the Latin phrase annus aerae christianae on the title page of a theology book. The English phrase “common Era” appears at least as early as ,  and in a book on astronomy it is used interchangeably with “Christian Era” and “Vulgar Era”.
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Not only is there a question about when the 21st century actually begins — on the first day of January or the following year — but some historians and others also are replacing B. The designation B. Before Christ and A. But some academics and religious scholars are using B. Before Common Era and C. Common Era to denote historical periods without reference to a date that may be significant only in the Christian world.
Common Era is one of the notation systems for the world’s most widely used calendar era. BCE is the era before CE. BCE and CE are alternatives to the Dionysian BC and AD system respectively. The Dionysian era distinguishes eras using BC and AD.
Wikipedia, Anno Domini article :. For example, Cunningham and Starr write that “B. Common Era notation is used in many schools and academic settings. Later on, it was found Jesus likely wasn’t born that year , but a few years earlier i. Marking it as the “Christian Era” or more commonly, the “Common Era” allows the same epoch to be used even though the best calculation for Jesus’s birth has changed.
While Christians make up a very large chunk of the world’s population, they are no where near the majority. When “Christian Era” is used, it’s still clear what epoch is being referred to i. Modern dates are understood in the Western world to be in the Gregorian calendar, but for older dates writers should specify the calendar used.